Technologies and Production
Technical and Production Process
Full process transfer of the most advanced manufacturing process
Gintech has obtained state-of-the-art manufacturing technology to produce high-quality solar cells, along with its full process transfer from leading European and Japanese PV manufacturers.
To push growth limits and to make technological breakthroughs, Gintech is pooling all its resources for product improvement and process innovation.
Cross-business experience integration
With diverse expertise and experience in semiconductor and electronics, Gintech's production team has unparalleled competitive strengths.
Strong R&D support
Gintech works closely with world leading research and educational institutions for technological consultation. It also enjoys strong support from the government and academic institutes.
Standard Production Process
At this stage, silicon wafer saw marks are eliminated and the wafer surface rough-etched by acid liquid once passing through the incoming inspection. This reduces the reflectivity of incident light and assists to raise efficiency.
Inject phosphorus gas into the wafer in a high temperature environment to make electrical holes of the rich P-type silicon wafer surface infiltrated with phosphorus which then forms an N-type area containing higher electrons. This is the so called P-N junction for photovoltaic conversion effects.
Phosphorus Glass Etching
During the phosphorus diffusing process, phosphorus glasses on the outer surface of the wafer are created. The phosphorus glasses should be removed by acid washing to continue follow-up production.
Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD)
Silane and ammonia interaction in a high temperature furnace can create a silicon nitride anti-reflective coating on the wafer surface. The coating is mainly blue and possibly blue-purple or light-blue depending on its thickness.
Use silver and aluminum slurry to screen print thin and thick electrodes on both surfaces of wafer. This process includes three steps: print the front side first, print thick electrode and use aluminum slurry to print the rest of the area on the other side. In between each step, the wafer has to go through the drying furnace and optical testing system to ensure the screen printing details and positioning are correct.
Once the metal slurries have gone through the screen printing and drying steps, they are rapidly sintered to penetrate silicon nitride coating on the front to infiltrate the wafer surface and combine closely to conduct the electrical current.
Laser Crystal Edge Insulation
The front side of a solar cell made from P-type silicon wafer is negative (-) and the back side is positive (+). Use a laser to cut a notch deeper than the P-N junction on the wafer edge to avoid a short circuit between the positive and negative sides. This process can also be performed during plasma treatment and chemical etching.
Performance Test and Classify
Once the front and back appearance is tested, measure the photovoltaic conversion efficiency and other electrical information of all products by the automatic testing equipment. Select and categorize according to Gintechs’s policies. The standard wafer used in the electrical measurement equipment correction is passed to Fraunhofer ISE for independent verification regularly to ensure the efficiency labeled on the products is accurate.